Toxicity of Tin in selected mammal population: a review

Review article

Vol. 7 Issue 2 Page No. 9-15

¹Kavita Yadav, 2Mudit Gupta 3Priyanka Sharma and Hariom Nagar*¹

¹Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal Road, Jagatpura Jaipur (Raj.) India

2LBS College, Jaipur (Raj.)  India

3Lords University, Alwar


Heavy metal



Human exposure

*Corresponding author’s e-mail addresses:,


Tin is a delicate silver-white in its natural state. When it comes to air and water, metal is mildly inactive. Tin is the fundamental gathering metal (nuclear number 50), and it exists in two oxidation states in its inorganic and natural mixtures: +2 and the more stable +4. While raw tin and inorganic tin compounds are normally nontoxic, biological tin species that are lipid-solvent may cause a number of negative effects. Organotins that have been trisubstituted (R3SnX) or disubstituted (R2SnX2) are generally more poisonous than those that have been monosubstituted (RSnX3). With increasing alkyl chain length free of counter ions, the toxicity decreases.


Schiff bases are a significant class of compounds in both the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries (Amanullah et al. 2011). Due to their possible applications in the fields of coordination and organometallic chemistry, there has been a rapid increase in interest in the

synthesis of Schiff bases and their metal complexes in recent years (Arulmurugan et al. 2010). Amino acids, which make up a large group of biomolecules, have the ability to function as oxygen and nitrogen donor ligands. It has been discovered that they make the best use of their functional groups when it comes to metal coordination (Arish and Nair 2012). As a result, several metal derivatives of various amino acids have been identified (Singh et al. 2014), with some of these showing significant biological activity. Tricyclohexyltin alaninate, for example, has been discovered to be effective as a fungicide and bactericide for seeds and plants (Liu et al. 2014). Metal complexes of amino acid Schiff bases with transition metals have also been confirmed to have anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities (Singh 2016).

Tin has been regarded as a precious metal since ancient times, dating back to 3500 B.C.; gold, silver, and copper were the metals that came before it. About 2500 B.C., the copper-tin composite bronze was conceived. Tin had a major impact on human culture, and it is commemorated in ancient history. The Bronze Age lasted until the middle of the seventeenth century, when cast iron began to replace the extraordinary bronze composite known as “gunmetal.”Different aspects of tin’s history can be seen in the development of level glass in Murano, Italy, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and the advancement of purple and red cochineal-tin dyestuff lakes in the Netherlands around 1640. With the approval of the protector of the mystical processes, the two inventions almost cornered the political economy for a time. It was the only substance for keeping food sources for what seemed like an eternity because it had no effect on the taste or kind of meat or beverage. As a result, tinware piqued people’s curiosity. Today, it’s worth noting that the pH of a substance, storage temperature and time, and whether or not the food jars are covered all play a role in how well canned food breaks down. As a result, the natural effects of inorganic tin, tin structures, or tin edifices in animals and humans should be of great concern (Lehmler 2018).

Human openness to tin is triggered by the appearance of the metal and its mixtures from familiar and anthropogenic sources. Tin is used in pewter and binding fabrics, as well as copper and bronze alloys. They can also be used in colours and coatings, lipstick, dental care products, colour consultants, and food additives. Organotin compounds are species of methylated tin framed from inorganic tin due to the presence of microbes in soil and marine silt (Duaa et al. 2018). The main nerve point for human opening up to tin is the absorption of food contaminated by tin compounds (fish, food in tin jars) and contact with Information on human exposure to inorganic and organotin compounds is still limited. Tin is not a key ingredient for people (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 2005).

Lethal shock

Inorganic and natural mixtures may be ingested by inhalation, absorption, or dermal penetration to some extent. Tin that has been assimilated is distributed across the body. The vessel was discovered in kidney, liver, pulmonary, brain and bone tissues in posthumous cases, with the most notable objective estimated in previous tissue. At this time, no research has been done on the digestion of inorganic tin compounds. Natural tin compounds are dealkylated/deacylated in a progressive manner, depending on the creature and in vitro considerations. Tin discharge takes the form of dung and, to a lesser extent, pee. The majority of tin compounds, particularly inorganic species, are quickly depleted; however, small amounts are stored in bones for future use. While both inorganic and natural tin mixtures can cross the placenta, their uptake by breastfeeding has yet to be demonstrated (Appel 2004; Ksenia and Valentine 2017).

Action pathway

Organotin’s negative effects are exacerbated by the alkyl and aryl moieties’ interactions with cell films, as well as the alkyl tin cation’s intracellular reactivity. The findings can be divided into two categories: Ca2+ ward and Ca2+ autonomous responses (Landstrom et al. 2017). Organotin compounds wreak havoc. Ca2+-free proteins are coordinative and covalent, limiting catalysts involved in energy production and drug digestion, as well as the guideline of transmembrane slopes. Trimethyl tin analogues induced increased neuronal entry, decreased neuronal take-up of synapses, and decreased articulation of neural cell bond particles. ATBT and TPT are powerful atomic, chemical receptor activators (RXR, PPARg). They promote adipocyte separation, claiming that these organotins may help people with metabolic diseases (Longo et al. 2019).

Acute toxicity

Inorganic tin compounds have a relatively low level of toxicity. Sickness, regurgitation, and loose bowels have all been linked to the consumption of tin-tainted canned food. Detailed effects include skin and eye discomfort, respiratory irritation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and neurological implications. Both inward breath openness to a mixture of trimethyl tin and demethylation gases and severe oral ingestion of trimethyl tin have resulted in fatal cases. In France in 1954, treatment of Staphylococcus infections with a drug based on triethyl tin iodide (the alleged Stalinon® undertaking) resulted in about 100 deaths.

Impact of inorganic tin

There have been a few studies on the long-term dangers of inorganic tin compounds. Stannosis, a benign form of pneumoconiosis, may be caused by constant inward breath exposure to stannic oxide residue or exhaust. Rehashed ingestion of inorganic tin compounds may cause gastrointestinal side effects. Pallor and gastrointestinal distension are effects seen when animals are exposed to inorganic tin compounds for an extended period of time.

Toxic effects on nervous system

Following exposure to trimethyl tin, neuronal corruption has been discovered in limbic system spaces, especially in the hippocampus. Anger, cognitive impairment, and lethargy are all possibilities. In the French cases, ingesting triethyl tin caused cerebrum and line growth, as evidenced by liquid aggregation between myelin layers, myelin sheet parting, and the formation of intramyelin vacuoles. The components of trimethyl and triethyl tin’s neurotoxic activity have yet to be fully understood. Limited amounts of trimethyl tin can repress astrocytes’ ability to maintain a transmembrane K+ slope, causing an imbalance in neuronal hindrance/excitation, according to one theory.

Effects on immune system

In rodents, severe immunotoxin effects require daily doses of >2 mg/kg; however, when used for a long period of time, the weakness of simple and unclear contamination defence can now occur at daily doses as low as 0.25 mg/day.

Impact on reproductive system

Pregnancy disappointment, pre- and post-implantation misfortunes, resorptions, and stillbirths were all observed in rodents and mice. There is still uncertainty about whether these effects occur independently of maternal damage.

Synthetic persistent organometallic xenobiotics known as organotin compounds (OTs) are commonly used in a variety of commercial applications. As endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), they have well-documented negative effects in the brain, liver, adipose tissue, and reproductive organs, but their effects on the kidneys are less well understood. Since the kidneys are a xenobiotic metabolising site, toxins can accumulate in renal tissue, resulting in impaired renal function and a variety of renal abnormalities (Barbosa et al. 2018).

Carcinogenic impacts

In vitro genotoxicity concentrates with inorganic tin compounds produced both positive and negative results. In bacterial studies, stannous chloride (SnCl2) induced DNA damage and sister chromatid trades in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), as well as chromosomal deviations in CHO cells and human fringe lymphocytes. In bacterial tests, stannic chloride (SnCl4) was found to be toxic. The arrangement of sensitive oxygen species has been credited with the stannous particle’s very weak genotoxic effect. In general, in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity concentrates with organotin compounds revealed a similar illustration. In a couple of samples, pitifully precise results were obtained (fundamentally in mammalian test frameworks). However, most examinations in bacterial and mammalian test frameworks ended up being harmful.

There have been no studies to see whether inorganic or natural tin increases the risk of cancer in people. Nonetheless, some animal studies have shown that some organotin mixtures could have cancer-causing potential, which may be of concern to humans. In female rodents, a mixture of mono-n-octyl tin trichloride and di-n-octyl tin dichloride caused measurably significant thymus lymphomas, which summed up harmful lymphomas in rodents of either sex in the highest portion gatherings (Ciba-Geigy Ltd 1986). Di-n-butyl tin diacetate caused a substantial rise in hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in male mice, while tri-n-butyl tin oxide induced benign hypophyseal tumours, adrenal pheochromocytomas, parathyroid adenomas, and an unusual anaplastic tumour of the exocrine pancreas. In light of these findings, and in light of the organotin compounds’ minor genotoxic potential, has classified n-butyl tin and n-octyl tin compounds as classification four cancer-causing agents. There has been an essentially indistinguishable appraisal/assessment of the cancer-causing nature of tributyltin oxide (“not classifiable as to human cancer-causing nature”).

Various authorities for the policy

To ensure human well-being, public and global administrative experts have guided openness to tin and its inorganic and natural mixtures. The FDA has established recommendations for using stannous chloride as a food additive, as well as some natural tin compounds in coatings and plastic food packaging. The US Environmental Protection Agency has imposed restrictions on the use of some organotin compounds in paints. A few offices have set openness limits for tin and tin compounds in the workplace. Workplace openness cut off points of 2 mg/m3 for inorganic tin compounds (except tin oxides (OSHA and NIOSH) and tin hydride (ACGIH®)) and 0.1 mg/m3 for organotin mixes (aside from tricyclohexyltin hydroxide (NIOSH)) are recommended by OSHA, NIOSH etc. The German Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Workplace, on the other hand, has stated that there is insufficient evidence to establish the most severe fixation esteem (MAK) for tin and inorganic tin compounds. A MAK of 0.02 mg/m3 was established for n-butyl tin and n-octyl tin compounds; an MAK of 0.002 mg/m3 was established for phenyl tin compounds and an MAK of 0.002 mg/m3 was established for the other natural tin intensifiers.

Applications of bulk SnS

Bulk SnS Applications Tin (II) sulphide is a promising material for thin-film solar cells’ absorber layers. Based on the evaporation of SnS into an indium doped tin oxide (ITO)/n-CdS/p-SnS/Ag hetero structure, Noguchi et al. developed one of the first solar cells with a significant power conversion efficiency. The cell had a 7 mA cm2 short circuit current, a 0.12 V open circuit voltage, a 0.35 fill factor, and a 0.29 percent conversion efficiency (Norton et al. 2021).


In conclusion, Schiff bases with transition metals have anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have conflict of interest.


The authors are thankful to SGVU for providing necessary facilities and faculty members to give proper guidance for writing this review article.


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